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SENSITIZER NOTICE - "Some substances can cause a specific immune response in some people. Such substances are called sensitizers and the development of a specific immune response is termed 'sensitization.' Exposure to a sensitizer, once sensitization has occurred, may manifest itself as a skin rash or inflammation or as an asthmatic condition, and in some individuals this reaction can be extremely severe"29

SENSITIZERS - "Following the induction of a sensitized state, an affected individual may subsequently react to exposure to minute levels of that substance. Although low values have been assigned to strong sensitizing agents, compliance with the recommended exposure standard may not provide adequate protection for a hypersensitive individual. Persons who are sensitized to a particular substance should not be further exposed to that substance."29

CHROMIUM (A) - "Chronic exposure to dusts or mists containing chromium salts may cause ulceration and perforation of the nasal septum. Respiratory irritation may occur with symptoms resembling asthma. Other symptoms may include conjunctivitis, anorexia, nausea, gastritis, duodenal ulcers and colitis. Liver damage may occur. Chronic skin exposures may lead to a skin rash, and entry of chromium salts into open wounds may cause chromium ulcers."30

CHROMIUM (B) - "Acute poisoning from ingestion of chromium and its salts may cause dizziness, intense thirst, abdominal pain, shock and reduction in urinary output and vomiting. Prolonged skin exposure might cause ulceration of the skin. Acute exposure to dry chromium salts may cause severe irritation of the eyes, nose throat, bronchial tubes and lungs.31

COPPER - "chronic exposure to dusts or mists containing copper may cause irritation of the eyes, nose and respiratory tract, dermatitis and perforation of the nasal septum."30

ARSENIC (A) - "chronic arsenic poisoning, whether through ingestion or inhalation, may be manifested by many symptoms. Digestive disturbances such as nausea, cramps, constipation or diarrhea with associated weight loss are likely, and liver damage may also occur. Disturbances of the kidneys, the nervous system and of the blood, such as anemia, are not infrequent. Arsenic may cause a variety of skin abnormalities, including itching and pigmentation. These effects may result from dermal exposures or from systematic distribution. Chronic dermatitis commences with patchy erythema and may lead to papular or vesicular eruptions. Optic and peripheral neuritis may also develop with prolonged exposure. Aplastic anemia has also been observed.

Chronic exposures to dusts or mists containing arsenic may cause irritation of the nose and pharynx, leading to acute or chronic rhinitis. Prolonged exposures may occasionally lead to perforation of the nasal septum."30

ARSENIC (B) - "acute poisoning from ingestion of arsenic at doses approaching the minimum lethal dose causes restlessness, nausea, vomiting, headaches, dizziness, chills, cramps, irritability and variable paralysis which may progress over a period of several weeks. Ventricular arrhythmia's may occur. After ingestion of overwhelming amounts of arsenic (ten times the minimum lethal dose), initial symptoms are those of violent gastroenteritis; burning oesophageal pain, vomiting, and copious watery or bloody diarrhea containing shreds of mucus. Later, the skin becomes cold and clammy, the blood pressure falls and weakness is marked. Death is from circulatory failure. Convulsions and coma are the terminal signs. If death is not immediate, jaundice and oliguria or anurias appear after one to three days. Inhalation of arsenic dusts may cause acute pulmonary oedema, restlessness, dyspnoea, cyanosis, cough with sputum and rales. Following acute exposure to arsenicals, exfoliative dermatitis and peripheral neuritis may occur.31

METABOLISM AND EXCRETION - "Absorbed arsenic is rapidly eliminated through the kidney either unchanged or as cacodylic acid and methylarsonic acid. Inorganic arsenic is excreted unchanged in the urine during the first hours after the start of exposure. After about eight hours most of the excreted arsenic is as cacodylic acid and methylarsonic acid.

About three quarters of a single dose of trivalent inorganic arsenic is eliminated with in a few days, or a most, within a week, with the remainder being dispersed in the tissues. In the skin, brain, and skeleton the concentrations decrease rather slowly. The health effects after long term exposure to arsenic are possibly just as much a result of continuous exposure to excessive amounts of arsenic as they are of accumulation of arsenic."32


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